In 1992 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed. This contributed to an increased focus on emissions of the climate gas CO2. Today 35% of global CO2 emissions come from power and heat production [IEA 2005]. To reduce some of the world's emissions, one can capture CO2 from thermal power generation and deposit it in suitable underground structures.
Several studies on how to reduce global warming have been completed in the last decade. Reduction of CO2 emissions is one of the essential measures in all of these reports. There has also been a trend towards tougher emissions targets, with targets for up to 85% reduction in emissions by 2050.
In almost all of these reports, CCS is recognised as an essential technology to reduce global warming. It is now accepted as a solution for the short- to medium-term (0-100 years). In the long term, renewable energy sources will have to dominate. But it will take a long time to convert the world's energy systems; in the meantime, fossil fuels will continue to be used. To reduce the impact of these fuels on the climate, CCS is essential.
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